The collapse of the travel industry during the Covid-19 epidemic
Looking at STA travel now being a CovidCasualty, alongside other travel industry casualties just before The Event and the ones which are inevitably to come, it does occur to me that travel industry casualties are of somewhat more reaching and significant social consequences than the retail sector’s and the hospitality sector’s casualties.
Arguably over the last few years the hospitality sector had been expanding far in excess of the capacity of the market to sustain that growth anyway — it was a bubble that was inevitably going to burst, and the casualties are arguably more of a market correction than an existential crisis. When All This Is All Over there will still be plenty of pubs and bars, cafés and restaurants, for people to go to, and the ones who survive The Event will do so as businesses which are more sustainable.
Little needs to be said that hasn’t been said at length about the state of the retail sector — people aren’t buying things from shops because shops aren’t selling things people want to buy when people want to buy them. Shops aren’t closing left, right, and centre, it’s just certain shops which are closing left, right, and centre — you can still buy clothes, perfume, food, and tech in shops, you just can’t buy them in many department stores anymore. You can still buy purses and shoulder bags in shops, you just can’t buy purses and shoulder bags in shops where the only distinguishing feature is they’ve got the name ‘Cath Kidston’ printed prominently on the side (if only the same could be said about cups with spots and notebooks with words on and the name Emma Bridgewater at least discretely underneath…). The social consequences of most of the shops which are shutting will be negligible, because people will still be able to buy the things they need and want.
Travel industry closures are perhaps a different matter.
For sophisticated folks booking all the individual components of a holiday ourselves is simple and are the default method of sorting out a holiday anyway, not least because the kinds of holidays we want to have (or indeed can afford to have) aren’t available through travel agents anyway. But I think most people use travel agents to book holidays as some form of package simply because it’s easier to, and for those sorts of holidays the economies of scale and corporate purchasing power make them cheaper than they would be for an individual doing DIY booking. And whilst folks like you and I are good with Duck Duck Go to find things, my observation even many educated people have poor research skillz. So the collapse of the travel industry leaves a whole in the ability to book holidays not as easily filled as the scaling back of the retail and hospitality industries.
And even if people learn how to do their own research and book places to travel to themselves, if the hotel industry, the ferry industry, and the plane industry are also collapsing, how are people going to get to them? The UK rail industry has been temporarily all but nationalised, but that’s because the government finally recognised rail as Essential National Infrastructure. Could the same be said of the rest of the mass transport sector? Are hotels essential?
The ability for people of most means to go on holiday has been described as one of the significant levelling developments of the 20th century, as working and middle class people were given the leisure time only the upper classes previously had, and the cost of doing fun things with that leisure time dropped to bring the ability to do fun things with that leisure time to the working classes. Take that away, and it’s another step to returning us to pre-Edwardian times.
[Note 1: *You* might not be able to afford to go in holiday, or rather, you might choose to prioritise your spending in directions other than holidays, I’m not talking about you, I’m talking about society]
[Note 2: *You* might consider people going on holiday to be responsible for the destruction of the planet and your leisure time might be spent cycling to volunteer on sustainable tofu farms and you might think that’s what everybody should do, but I’m not talking about you, I’m talking about society]
[Note 3: In talking about the negligible social consequences of the shrinking of the retail and hospitality sectors I’m of course aware of the many real people for which there are real consequences which will obviously contribute to an overall negative social impact, but that’s not what I’m talking about here]
Exercises for Improvisation, Composition, and Compovisation
This article was originally written for a module of the Master of Arts in Ethnomusicology which I did in 1996.
Creative music making has always been seen as something which is difficult to do, some thing which is not for the average musician, but which can only be done by certain types of performer: the Jazz musician, the Rock guitarist, etc. Somehow people seem to forget that in 99% of cases their very first experiences with a musical instrument will have been of an improvisatory nature, for how many of us were able to pick our instrument up that first time all those years ago & read & play a piece of music from a piece of paper; indeed how many of us were even able to read music when we first bashed at the keys of the classroom piano as a child ?
Nowadays the ability to play more than just what has been written down by some body else is becoming more & more important, & also to teach this ability to other people. The British National Curriculum for Music has composition as a major part of its syllabus. Music Colleges, such as Birmingham Conservatoire, have as a constituent part of their courses classes in improvisation & composition, & options to take this further for more advanced students. For the professional musician, contemporary music increasingly includes elements where the player must take more responsibility for what happens next, & the jobs in the London Sinfonietta & the Birmingham Contemporary Music Group are going to go to the people who can do this. Additionally, what is the sense in turning down a lucrative recording session for UB40's next album just because you cannot improvise ? Indeed, for a serious career in musical performance the ability to improvise is in this day an essential requirement, rather than a useful addition, of a player's abilities.
This work is intended for use by teachers of music at all levels, whether at a music college where the need is to reawaken the students' long forgotten latent creative abilities, or at a school where your purpose is to make sure these abilities don't go to sleep in the first place. The intention is to work the excercises in groups; between 5 & 10 people is a good number - less than that & there isn't really enough room for interpersonal interaction, & more than that is leading dangerously towards chaos.
It is highly recommended that all work you do is recorded & listened to afterwards, since this is the only way people can know how they are actually sounding, which bits are good & which bits are not so good. Also, you never know, one session might actually produce an embryo masterpiece which is worth writing down & turning into a composition for others to play.
THE TERMS 'COMPOVISATION, IMPROVISATION, & COMPOSITION'
For my purposes here, I feel it is convenient to introduce a new term into the language of creative music, & slightly redefine two old terms.
Composition is the act of sitting down & planning a new piece of music in advance of one or many subsequent performances. The composer is using to create the new piece the product of his or her entire musical education; various techniques, scales, & catchphrases (s)he has picked up along the rocky road of life are bound to make an appearance. The piece may be composed bit by bit, part by part, section by section; but ultimately the important thing that makes it (according to my definition) a composition is the fact that it is preserved in some form (be it recorded, printed, or memorised) for performers to play again on subsequent occasions.
Improvisation is related to composition, in that it is often described as 'composition in real time'. In my definition scheme, the important aspect which makes a creative act an improvisation is the fact that the new music that is being created is significantly based on material that has already been composed. Perhaps the most obvious illustrative example of this is in jazz or folk music - the pieces being improvised upon have already been composed, often by another, & the improviser is adding their own new music to the material already extant.
Compovisation is the natural fusion of techniques used in the practice of Composition & Improvisation. In coining this term, I feel it is necessary to make a distinction between this & the definitions of composition & improvisation stated above, which, although certainly a musician will be using composition techniques during a standard improvisation, & probably vice versa, they will still be mainly concerned with the one & not really interested in the other. As an example, a composer will be writing their music down from their mind's working out, using whatever techniques they use, & may occasionally improvise some rhythms, melodies, & chords at some instrument or other in order to furnish themselves with some musical material. An improviser on the other hand may be in a jazz group improvising a solo during a performance of Thelonious Monk's 'Well You Needn't'. The piece has already been composed; the soloist is making up their own part to augment the musical material already established - it is acknowledged that they are playing Thelonious Monk's music written some time ago, not their own music written now. The Compoviser has as their starting point nothing or at most very little in comparison. It might be an Indian Raga or Mela, an Arabic Maqam, a Persian Dastgah, or a Medieval Church Mode. It might even be only the tacit agreement between the musicians in a free - form jazz group that when they are playing together, whatever happens they will not get in each other's faces & will go with whoever has the strongest musical idea at any given snapshot in time. A compoviser is truly composing in real time, & radically different processes are taking place than when in the act of improvising or composing which make new terminology necessary.
A compovisation does not need to be restricted to the original event when it was created. If, for example, the sitarist's raga performance is recorded in a form where a musician can then recreate that performance on a subsequent occasion with a comparitively small degree of variation from the original, then that piece has become a composition. The performer might indeed like to improvise with the new composition. A musician may also use compovisation with the sole purpose of creating a composition, without any need for an audience or a live concert: One might be in a recording studio using a computer & MIDI equipment to build up a piece part by part, playing in each part 'live', & reacting to previously recorded parts & parts that are known to be recorded in the future with the same scarcity of predecided material as in a dastgah performance, & the same spontaneity of creation as exhibited by the free jazz group.
THE BARRIERS TO COMPOVISATION, IMPROVISATION, & COMPOSITION.
The following barriers exist to prevent an inexperienced musician from creating music in any improvised manner:
2: Lack of knowledge of the processes involved
3: Lack of ability to communicate
4: Lack of ability to express oneself effectively on one's instrument
5: Lack of desire to do so in the first place
Clearly, barrier #5 will be insurmountable at any given time, so it is not worth even attempting to overcome it. Barrier #4 is not really relevant here; the musician involved should practise their instrument sufficiently so that they can express themselves effectively. Barrier #1 is, to me, the most sigificant, & may or may not, depending on the individual concerned, be linked to #2 & #3. It is the purpose of these exercises to overcome them, & if the individual follows them properly, & can be sure of not being hampered by #4 & #5, then they will finish being expert compovisers.
Cycle around the exercises in whatever order you deem specifically appropriate (though do bear in mind that they are in this order for a reason), spending as much time as is required on each one at a time, being aware of course that it makes more sense to spend less time on them with beginners & increase the time on a gradient as people get more advanced. If you feel that whilst cycling around any particular exercise has outlived its usefulness with the given group, then obviously don't keep labouring upon it, as this will only be counterproductive by boring people. Likewise, remember that these exercises are far from exhaustive, & you are encouraged to adapt these exercises & devise new ones of your own.
I have found that when rehearsing groups generally & when working these exercises specifically that the most efficient layout to have the players sit is in a circle - as tight a circle as can be comfortable managed. The reason for this is because an essential component of this work is interpersonal communication - the players need to see & hear each other with a clear line of sight & sound. Unfortunately I have also found that most musicians, especially orchestral ones, tend to be lazy about sitting in a circle, so you may have to exert your authority in pursuading them to sit where you want them to. If you have the opportunity to, it is best to prepare the room beforehand with the chairs already set out this way. If you can perform the exercises in the dark, then so much the better; darkness stimulates the imagination, & also lessens the problem of embarrassment - if nobody can see you, then they don't know it was you who played a dodgy note !
Purpose:To focus the minds of the participants into the tasks ahead, & to aclimatise their ears to static, focussed sounds.
Action:Whilst still sat in the circle, the group hums a single note that is comfortable to every body's range. Spend a few seconds getting it in tune. Then, when it is settled, each person in turn sings a word of their choice, 'Stockhausen - style'. It can be any word; their name, somebody else's name, or whatever. Go around the circle at least once.
Notes:If the participants are not embarrassed about performing this exercise, then that is good; they obviously understand the purpose & inhibitions are not likely to be a major problem in the future. If any body is embarrassed, then this is useful for you to see too; latent inhibitions have manifested themselves early & you will be able to act on this. If an individual deems that they have made a fool out of themselves by humming their name in a circle, then being a fool later on when they have to demonstrate their perceived inability to improvise should no longer matter to them. Do not take this for granted, however, only you with your own personal knowledge & the fact that you are on the spot at the time can make accurate judgements as to what is going on.
Purpose:An initial compovisational exercise. Basic aural skills of listening to other musicians & knowing what they are playing are developed, along with building up people's confidence to play a note & worry less about whether it was the 'right' note.
Action:Somebody, probably you, sits at a piano. It could be a vibraphone, or a synthesiser, or bells or whatever, but a piano is most likely to be at hand. You choose a note, any note will do. Keeping the sustain pedal depressed, you repeatedly play this note with a moderate crotchet pulse in the four octaves that your two hands will allow you. The first person in the circle then plays a long note of their own choosing on their instrument. They must stick with the first note chosen & not change it. They must also keep holding the note on, without stopping, though of course they are allowed to breathe etc. Then the next person joins in with a note, & the next, & so on around the circle. When it gets back to the start, the first person then plays another, different, note & it goes around again until you get bored & stop.
Notes:The participants shouldn't really play any old note at random, rather they should use their ears to try & work out what note they should choose to play in order to make an overall pleasing sound. However, the temptation for every body to end up producing a quaint little C major chord should be avoided at all costs (!), as the object is to show that dissonance is a pleasing sound. This is why people are not allowed to correct their mistakes, which will inevitably occur unless the entire group possesses the facility of perfect pitch.
Further developments of this exercise could include things such as people not having to keep the note sustained all the time, & thus introducing space & dynamics to the proceedings. Also, people can be allowed to change the note that they are playing at any time rather than waiting their turn, so allowing a much faster change in the ensuing harmonies. The person playing the piano can also change note occasionally, as well as tempo, & can introduce accented notes into the pulse to make the overall sound more interesting; in addition they might like to throw the odd chord in to the mix.
The exercise is deemed to be successful when the participants are obviously not shy about taking part in it, & you won't need to labour on it further. However, it is a useful exercise to come back to it occasionally afterwards as the group gets more advanced, & compare results. For this reason, it is a good idea if possible to record all of your sessions & play them back afterwards.
Purpose: To develop the participants' rhythmic skills.
Action: An audible metronome is set ticking to a 4/4 beat at a moderate tempo. Better still, if you have access to a drum machine, then set that grooving away with a fairly simple beat. Alternatively, you keep the pulse going yourself. Each person is given a simple hand percussion instrument, such as a woodblock, claves, guiro, etc. If there are not enough instruments to go around then some people will have to clap, but be careful to distribute these people evenly around the circle rather than having them all bunched together at the end. The first person starts playing a rhythm on top, any rhythm they like (excluding irrational rhythms such as 13 in the time of 16; this is just trying to be clever & not helping any body); though be particularly aware that if each individual plays a simple rhythm to start with, the overall effect is likely to be more successful - stress upon the participants that we are not engaged in a competition to see who can play the cleverest rhythm, we are engaged in an exercise to produce an excellent group output. After a pause of a set number of bars the next person joins in, playing a different rhythm. Then the next person joins in, & so on around the circle. People do not need to wait for a complete revolution to change their own rhythm, rather they change after another pre - agreed number of bars. This continues until a natural end is reached.
Notes: When 4/4 has been mastered, change the timing to things such as 3/4, 5/4, 6/8, 10/8, etc. Make sure you do add the so - called 'complex' timings, as the myth that they are more difficult to play than simple ones needs to be exploded. You can also change the tempo as you wish. As with Exercise #1, introduce space & dynamic to the proceedings by allowing people to stop playing for a while. Something else you can do, which can be quite fun if taken seriously, is to have one person without an instrument (or not clapping as the case may be), ie dothing nothing other than listening. After a set number of bars the person sitting next to them stops playing & hands them their instrument, & after another interval the new person starts playing. This passes around the circle as with the rhythms, so that every body ends up having played at least two instruments by the end. Try having the instrument changing going around in the opposite direction to that which people joined in. Try having a different set number of bars for each different event, such as joining in, resting, changing rhythm, instrument, & so on.
In all of the Exercises you will need to keep careful control over proceedings to make sure that things don't degenerate into anarchy through silly behaviour, but experience shows that this one can be particularly anarchy prone; as it is unfortunately the case that a number of people who play predominantly melodic instruments have a tendency to look down on percussion (for example, the 'kitchen sink department' of an orchestra, just a 'knocking noise in the background' of a big band), & the embarrassment caused by having to play it themselves can cause them to act up in this way. Once again, this knowledge can be useful to you, because if they can get over the shame of performing what they deem to be an inferior musical activity then they should have no excuse for not being able to get over any inhibitions later on when they have to start doing more difficult improvisation work. If you have any trained percussionists in the group, then this should be useful as they will be instinctively able to play more interesting rhythms straight off, which should provide ideas for those less experienced in rhythm.
Be careful to make sure people only change their state with relation to the set number of bars. This is not to hamper any body's creativity, but rather to instill from the beginning the discipline of working in phrases, rather than just playing slap - dash any old how & where.
Purpose: To develop the musician's ability to improvise with relation to a drone.
Action: A mode is chosen. It could be any mode, but a relatively 'normal' sounding one such as the Dorian mode is recommended initially, though the Ionian mode is most definitely not recommended, as the likelihood of producing twee little tunes is too horrible to contemplate. All the people in the group play a drone note in the background of the agreed 'tonic' that you are going to be working around. Do not add the 5th degree to the drone, because that complicates things needlessly, & also can tend to incite people to try to mimic the Scottish bagpipe stereotype, which is both incorrect, corny, & not pleasing to listen to. Going around the circle, each person in turn plays a melody in the mode, without much regard for any pulse. Start off short & simple, just a few notes will do at first, & gradually build up the length & complexity of what is played as people get more comfortable & more experienced. Finish when a natural end seems to have been reached, but go around the circle at least twice.
Notes: When the Dorian mode has been exhausted, try some other modes, particularly the Phrygian, the Lydian, & the Locrian ones, as the more exotic sound can provide useful ideas to people, as well as further training for the ear to accept dissonance. For the more advanced, using some Indian ragas can be useful, & a few examples are provided in the appendix. When free arhythmic playing gets boring, try introducing some pulse of some description into the proceedings.
It will probably be helpful for the group or individual to sing through a few medieval plainchants etc., in order to get the modal sound firmly established in peoples' minds in a musical context, as opposed to one's initial experiments with a keyboard when one is younger. Try changing modes during the course of a run. You could change the note to drone on part way through a few times as well, either announcing the new note or letting the participants use their ears to try & find it themselves. Be careful to point out to people when they are playing endless streams of notes without any gaps. It is often forgotten, even by advanced musicians, that space & phrasing is just as important an element in music as the notes themselves, so this tendency should be nipped in the bud from the outset. As each persons' turn gets longer, encourage them to play actual phrases with musical full stops & commas rather than just inconsequential meandering.
It is at this point where signs of being inhibited are going to become very obvious indeed; people are still only playing a few notes after repeated repetitions when every body else has started producing concertos, or they are playing for quite a long time but only sticking to one octave. If the whole group seems to be working like this, then you need to intervene by demonstrating a few ideas of how to be more interesting. Be careful not to intimidate people by playing something excessively flashy & difficult, rather just do something slighty better than the best thing done already.
Cycle around Exercises #1 to #3 a few times, & do not start to introduce Exercise #4 until some mastery of the earlier principles has been attained.
Name: Chords & Solos
Purpose: To consolidate what has been learned so far, & to prepare for what is to follow.
Action: A mode is chosen. You sit at the piano & play the root of the mode in a crotchet pulse, in much the same manner as Exercise #1, & each player joins in & holds a single note of their choosing as before, only this time the note they choose must be part of the initial mode. When a few people have started playing (at least 4), then people may start changing their notes to set up continuously shifting harmonies. At the appropriate moment, when every body has joined in is a good one, the first person then starts playing a solo over the top of it in much the same manner as Exercise #3, using their ears to pick up & highlight some of the changing harmonies. When they have finished, there is a suitable wait, & the next person has a turn, & so on around the circle, until it is time to stop.
Notes: When the first mode is exhausted, try another one, & another one. Don't just stick to the western modes, try a few of the eastern ones. The ultimate aim is to be able to play in a mode which consists of all twelve notes of the western chromatic scale, as a development of the earlier aim of getting used to the sound of dissonance & finding it pleasing. Change other aspects, as before, like the root note, the dynamics, & the density of orchestration.
Name: First Composition
Purpose: To get people starting to write music down, & practise composition themselves.
Action: By now people should have a few basic ideas about organisation of music, & so the next logical step is for them to write these ideas down. Each person should use what they have already experienced in the preceding exercises, & write down a few structures themselves. The results do not have to be wildly original, what is important is the fact that people are actually doing something. Use devices that have been used improvisationally such as changing orchestration, mode, pulse, speed, etc. Each piece should be played through by the group at least once. Don't have a block of only composed pieces; rather intersperse these with work on the other exercises.
Name: Chords, Solos, & Rhythms
Purpose: Further development of earlier work.
Action: The group is divided up into people who are going to play chords (as in Exercise #1), rhythms (Exercise #2), & solos (Exercise #3). Starting modes, times, & speeds are chosen. The rhythmic people start, then the chord people, then the melody people cycle around. Finish when you finish.
Notes: By now you will have got the idea of how to develop this, by changing modes, times, & speeds as & when, & working towards using all 12 notes. Have the people who are doing the various different things rotate around one by one as before during the run, so that people get a chance to do all 3 things.
Purpose: To learn to play over the top of simple basslines.
Action: A bassline is chosen - either one of your devising, or better still, one devised by members of the group, perhaps as part of the previous exercise. A person playing a bass instrument is given the task of repeating it, or better still, several people can share the responsibility. If there is nobody playing a suitable instrument, then you will have to handle it on the piano or synthesiser. If you still have the drum machine from exercise #2 then use that to accompany the group, as this should make things easier. As usual, each person takes it in turn to play a solo on top, starting as simply as necessary (remembering that by now people should be reasonably competant) & gradually getting longer & more complex.
Notes: Use simpler basslines in the early stages, & gradually move on to more involved ones. When everybody is comfortable with playing this exercise, which by now should be sooner rather than later, then you can start to encourage other people within the group to start adding harmonies & counter melodies etc. underneath the soloist. Remember to make sure however that those playing underneath bear in mind that they are only accompanying, so that they do not overpower the soloist by playing all the time, too loudly, too densely etc. Knowing when to leave a space in the music is still just as important as knowing when to fill the hole in.
By now the group members should have some facility in compovisation in a general sense; the preceding exercises should have given them enough confidence to begin to explore improvisation in jazz (both 'normal' & free - form); if they are interested in performing folk music, they will be able to make the 16 bar tunes come alive by incorporating their own arrangements of them, & if they are intending to perform Stockhausen's improvisation works, they should now have sufficient creative imagination that the short poetic verses & single lines of music can become a large 20 minute group performance. The final exercise deals with a specific form of 'compovisation', that of classical Persian music, which requires some prior explanation.
The initial starting point that is used for performing Persian music is the Dastgah - this can be compared with the Indian Raga (or perhaps more accurately the That), or the western mediæval Church Modes; there are 12 of these dastgah-e. To be more specific, each dastgah is a collection of melodic fragments (called gusheh-e) which are used as starting points for compovisation. Unlike the melodic 'catch phrases' of a raga, however, which are just 'known' by performers 'because', the gusheh-e are actually available in a printed form, known as the Radif (translated literally as 'row'). Performers of Persian music memorise the gusheh-e, & because of the vast number in the radif, most people tend to concentrate on learning 2 or 3 dastgah-e rather than all 12. A few gusheh-e from 2 dastgah-e (Shur & Segah) are included in the appendix. It must be stressed that these fragments are used only for starting points in compovisation - the musician doesn't simply play through them in sequence.
Whereas Indian music is often performed by soloists, Persian music is typically an ensemble affair; 4 or 5 melody instrumentalists, a singer, & 1 or 2 percussionists make up the usual Persian ensemble. Improvised music is freely mixed with pre-composed music in the standard dastgah performance. The generic structure for a performance goes as follows: the whole ensemble plays a Pish-Daramad, which is a piece composed (often, though not always, by the leader of the ensemble) in the overiding mode of the chosen dastgah, usually in a 4/4 metre, & may last for a few minutes. There is no harmony in Persian music, so each member of the ensemble plays the piece in unison, though textural interest is added by the fact that the piece is performed with a degree of improvised ornamentation on the part of the individual musicians. Then the members of the ensemble each in turn perform a free (typically arhythmic) improvisation in the dastgah, interspersed by shorter composed instrumental ensemble interludes called Tasnif. The performance ends with another extended composition called a Reng, which is typically in a 6/8 dance feel.
The accompaniment for the solo improvised passages is traditionally heterophonic; that is to say, the soloist is improvising away, & one of the other instrumentalists is carefully listening to what the soloist is playing, picking out key phrases & echoing them in the background (taking care to remain in the background) as a kind of 'dialogue'; thus the effect is of a manner of 'fluid drone', as opposed to the usually static drone of Indian music. At times the soloist will decide to move from the highly rubato playing to more rhythmic playing, at which points the percussionists shall join in.
The final exercise involves the members of the group first devising a 'dastgah' of there own, by making up a mode (or choosing one already available), & composing some short gusheh-e in that mode; approximately 10 - 20 should suffice. From this dastgah, they will also compose a pish-daramad & a reng (around 40 - 60 bars long), & a few tasnif-he (perhaps 8 or 16 bars long). With this, they shall organise a group improvisation using the format described above.
The Secret Power of Music
This article was originally written for the Musical Philosophies module of the Master of Arts in Ethnomusicology which I did in 1996; I've often had cause to refer to it since then so I've reproduced it here on my main site to make it easier to. It is presented as a description of philosophies held be other people and groups and not necessarily a personal view.
"All music, based upon melody & rhythm, is the earthly representative of heavenly music" - Plotinus (AD 205 - 269)
"Hear, & your soul shall live" - Isiah 55:3
Music as an organisation of sound is known to have existed for over 3000 years, & writings from the ancient civilisations of Mesopotamia, India & China suggest there was such an artform at least 1000 years previous to this. In our so - called 'scientific age' it is often easy to forget this; & music as it was taught in English schools until very recently even served to implicate a denial of this fact, by its labelling of our mediaeval music as 'primitive', its concentration on the theory of music apparent in the 'common practice' period, & by completely failing to mention the existence of methods of making music outside of the traditional Western art music mould.
Along with the increase in interest in the study of the theory & practise of other musical cultures on an equal footing to our own, there has been an upsurge of interest in what some people like to describe as the spiritual side of music - a side of musical philosophy that has had an important (almost to the point of becoming religious in nature) influence on every musical culture on the planet at some point during their histories, even our own. Contemporary theorists, composers, & performers such as David Tame, Joscelyn Godwin, Terry Riley, Peter Michel Hamel, Joachim-Ernst Berendt, & Dane Rudhyar have all made studies in this area & published their findings & opinions. Even medical science has come to formulate the opinion that music has some kind of power beyond mere soothing & relaxation with the science of Music Therapy - in 1984 David Tame (Tame 1984: p 157) noted that music therapy was not in wide use save for a few private practitioners, yet 16 years on in 1996 respected colleges such as the Roehampton Institute, & the Guildhall School of Music have courses in the subject, & local education & health authorities in places such as Birmingham employ peripatetic music therapists to visit patients in hospitals & special schools. New technology has been developed in order to assist practitioners, devices such as the EMS Soundbeam (a modern day development of the Theramin) & its associated peripherals enable the physically disadvantaged to benefit from sharing in the music making experience, & some hospitals have specially designed 'sense rooms', containing a myriad of coloured lights & fascinating sounds, in which even profoundly blind & deaf children experience the wonder & magic of the environment around them.
MICROCOSM & MACROCOSM - MICROSOUND & MACROSOUND ?
The further back in time we go, the greater emphasis was placed on the concept of music, & even sound in general, as inextricably connected to spirituality, & even the act of Creation itself. Just as Rennaissance philosophers such as Robert Fludd (1574 - 1637) had their ideas of Microcosm & Macrocosm (ideas which in themselves were strongly influenced by the views of Pythagoras (6th C. BCE) & Boethius (480 - 525)), with the microcosm as the physical world here on Earth (the Temporal Universe) being a reflection of the macrocosm of Heaven, or the Spiritual Universe, so the Ancients believed that audible sound (& thus music) was a reflection of a kind of 'Primal' sound or vibration, which was taking place in the spiritual universe. This inaudible sound was thought to be the basis of all matter & energy in the temporal universe, & in its fundamental form was known to the ancient Hindu people as Om. However, just as pure white light can be differentiated with a prism into the 7 colours of the rainbow, & as audible sound can be Fourier analysed into a series of tones of the Harmonic Series, so the primal scream was thought to have been differentiated into a series of harmonics, or Cosmic Tones, which were present in varying combinations throughout the universe - in fact, these tones, as the most powerful force in the universe, were the universe. In ancient Egypt these cosmic tones were declared as the Words of the Gods, the Pythagoreans of ancient Greece knew them as the Music of the Spheres, & the ancient Chinese described them as the Celestial Energies of Perfect Harmony. With this in mind, to Christians, the words from the Gospel of St John 'In the beginning was the Word, & the Word was with God, & the Word was God' could be interpreted literally in this manner to provoke thought as to the consequences of more sound upon the governance of the Universe; especially if one draws parallels with Hindu concepts: it is possible to equate the Hindu Om with the Word, for each are associated in scripture with the process of Creation, & each are associated with the 'Son' (Vishnu & Christ) in the respective Trinity.
So, if one chooses to believe i: that there is such a thing as Microcosm & Macrocosm, & ii: the concept of Om (or whatever one might wish to call it - the Word, or the Primal Vibration) as the maintainance of Creation, then it is not such a great leap of faith to consider the possibility that audible sound as we hear it in the temporal universe is the same reflection of the inaudible sound that governs the spiritual universe - we have here the concept of Microsound & Macrosound. Furthermore, it is possible to take this belief further, & assume that, since the microsound is a reflection of the macrosound (& vice versa), whatever happens in the microsound also affects the macrosound - ultimately extrapolated, this means that audible sound, & therefore music, affects the spiritual universe; since according to this belief, the spiritual universe affects the temporal one, audible sound, & therefore music, affects the physical world around us.
MUSIC & PHILOSOPHY IN ANCIENT CHINA
One of the earliest people to have implemented these ideas in their philosophy to the extreme were the ancient Chinese. To them, each piece of music was more than a mere entertainment, or even a worshipful act, it was an energy-formula which realised the sacred power of sound in its own unique way; each composition had its own effects on people, civilisation, & the world. It was this belief which influenced Chinese philosophers into directing more than an insignificant portion of their attention to the music of the nation - if the people were to be protected from the 'dangers' of the misuse of the power of music, & if they were to bask in its optimally beneficial use, then it had to be ensured that only the 'correct' music was allowed to be sounded. For them all music should convey eternal truths, & influence the peoples' character for the better; it is no accident therefore that the word for music (yüo) is the same pictogram as that for the word for serenity (lo). The ancient Chinese writings which are still extant make no bones about this power of music over the emotional wellbeing of man - such as in the Yo Ki ('Memorial of Music') we read thus:
'Under the effect of music, the 5 social duties are without admixture, the eyes & ears are clear, the blood & the vital energies are balanced, habits are reformed, customs are improved, & the empire is at complete peace.'
The philosophers were convinced that all 'course' & sensual music (in the terms of how they defined that) had an immoral effect on the person listening to it, & consequently kept an ear on music to ascertain its potential for spirituality or degradation. Confucius (551 - 479 BC) singled out several styles for moral condemnation: 'The music of Cheng is lewd & corrupting, the music of Sung is soft & makes one effeminate, the music of Wei is repetitious & annoying, & the music of Ch'i is harsh & makes one haughty' (Tame 1984: p 34). He also had positive things to say about music, thus: 'The noble-minded man's music is mild & delicate, keeps a uniform mood, enlivens & moves. Such a man does not harbour pain or mourn in his heart; violent & daring movements are foreign to him'.
THE PRIMAL SOUND & THE HUANG CHUNG
After coming to the conclusion that audible sound was inextricably linked to celestial sound, & the ramifications that had for civilisation, the Chinese then set about attempting to align their music to the principles & proportions of cosmic order; thus aligning all consciousness & life to this celestial order. From this we can draw parallels between the Chinese concept of consciousness (when correctly aligned) embodying the celestial sound, & the Christian concept of Christ being the physical manifestation of the Word of God. We have the 'divine right of kings' idea here - the Chinese emperors were also seen as gods, & their word was the Word. We can see this by examining some of the language - as an example, the name given to Chinese music's foundation tone was 'huang chung' ('yellow bell'), but this phrase was also used to refer to both the ruler (symbolically) & also to divine will itself. The colour yellow was seen as the colour of sacred wisdom, the imperial colour, & the emperor was a priest - king.
In terms of the microsound, the huang chung was used as the standard pitch upon which the music of the nation was based (ie, much the same as our contemporary A=442 Hz standard). As far as the philosophers related it to the macrosound, the audible huang chung was the most perfect audible manifestation of the primal vibration possible; it was considered as a several octave transposition of the 'macrochung', & as such was an actual audible embodiment of the Word. In cosmology, the purpose of the Word was to act as mediator between Heaven & Earth, so therefore the celestial huang chung (& consequently the audible transposition of it) was the vehicle for the transference of divine will into the microcosm. So, given this the analogy of the huang chung as both divine & temporal ruler is complete - as the bell set the pitch of all music, so did the Emperor set the laws of State, & both were seen as the transference objects through which divine will passed.
THE ALIGNMENT OF MICROCOSM & MACROCOSM
We have thus far dealt with the ideas that all musical pitches were aligned & standardised according to the huang chung, but there are yet more philosophical implications involved. For, if one gives it careful consideration, if one believes that earthly music should be standardised according to the heavens, it is possible for one to extrapolate a belief that all in the microcosm should be standardised to conform with the macrocosm, all weights & measures in addition to all music. To the ancient Chinese, this indeed was the case, & since they were assigning the greatest significance to the huang chung, it made perfect sense, if not absolutely essential, to use it as the yardstick by which weights & measures were set.
The question might be asked, just how could one derive such a system from a musical tone ? A system of length measurement is easy - a vibrating string of a specific length produces a specific pitch, but what about weight (the concept of mass was yet to be discovered), or volume ? The answer was deceptively simple; only a pipe of the correct length & correct volume could produce the correct huang chung tone, so the length of this pipe became the standard unit of distance measurement, its capacity became the unit of volume, & the weight of the amount of rice it contained became the standard unit of weight. So closely connected were the standardisation of music & dimensions that the Imperial Office of Music was actually associated with the Imperial Office of Weights & Measures, & the original pipe which was the standard by which all dimensions were copied from was more often than not kept at the latter office.
MUSIC & CHINESE ASTROLOGY
In addition to the huang chung tone (which was known as 'kung' - cf the Indian 'Sa', or our 'tonic' ('doh')), the Chinese octave was also differentiated into 12 tones tuned more or less according to the circle of 5ths common to many musical systems around the world, & each of these 12 tones were associated with one of the 12 zodiacal regions of the sky. So, given a belief in astrology, ie, the influence of heavenly objects on earthly life, with particular prominence given to the influence afforded by the zodiacal constellations, it is not too unreasonable to add to this a further belief in a similar influence of a particular tone during a particular month; & likewise, given the division of the day into units of 12 hours, a different tone was believed to also be in prominence during each hour.
As well as the 'dodecality' of the zodiac, it must also be remembered that Chinese philosophy was also riddled with the duality of opposites - the 'yin' & the 'yang' forces which were respectively masculine & feminine, positive & negative etc. Bearing this in mind, it comes as no surprise to learn that of the 12 tones, 6 of them were believed to be yin in nature, which corresponded to the later 6 months of the year, & the other 6 were believed to be yang tones, being aligned to the first 6 months of the year. In accordance with the belief that earthly music must exist in tandem with the heavenly music, the musicians performed their music according to whatever tone, or 'lüi' was dominating at the time, especially ceremonial music.
This was necessary because of the idea that the perfect State could only be maintained by remaining in alignment with the Celestial Order, & as well as aligning music along these lines various other functions of state were also associated with a tone; to take the line of reasoning further, even the officials of the nation were seen as the embodiment of the Cosmic Tones, & were thus assigned their own audible tone. The key of the music of a given ceremony was also influenced by the tone of the officiating office. Thus the music of the state, & the actions of the state, became the embodiment of divine will, & by its alignment with the principles of the macrocosm, the music of the microcosm could retroactively influence by the act of sympathetic resonance the energies of heaven to embody themselves within the leaders of the nation (Rudhyar 1928). If any of this attunement with celestial order were to be lost or corrupted, then such a loss had, according to the philosophy, a corresponding effect of reducing the nation to a state of imperfection & impermanence. A significant deviation was believed to run the risk of catastrophic effect.
THE LOSS OF THE HUANG CHUNG
For four & a half thousand years the music of China & its civilisation were maintained in harmonious alignment. & then, with the rise to power of the Ch'ing Dynasty (AD 1644 - 1912) music fell into decline. Parallelling this decline in music was a deterioration of the ancient civilisation, finally culminating in 1912 with the revolution of Sun Yat - Sen & followed by the rather temporary rise of the Republic (& then the later, even more temporary new Empire) of Chiang Kai - Shek & his Kuomintang Party.
This decline in the Chinese traditional music began with the arrival of Catholic missionaries from the West, along with their music. Gradually the western secular music was introduced, & then western instruments, & eventually western musicians became professors at the Imperial Court. However, the blame for the decline in the traditional music cannot be directed entirely at the hands of the west; after all, 'foreign' music had infiltrated Chinese music before - in AD 581 there were as much as 7 foreign orchestras in permanent residence at the imperial court, one of which had been there since as early as AD 384 (Sachs 1943). The difference between the earlier occasions & the last one was that whilst previously the traditional music had actually absorbed the palatable aspects of the foreign sounds into itself, & rejected the indigestible ones, this time around it was more a case of the ancient philosophy weakening its hold over the nation, & the nation ultimately rejecting it entirely, until finally with the Revolution the entire civilisation collapsed.
OTHER THOUGHTS & MODERN IMPLICATIONS
We have looked in some small detail into one area of philosophical thought regarding music, but this is by no means all of what there is - up until comparatively recently the performance of North Indian music was governed by similar concepts - for example, certain ragas could only be performed at certain times of the day or even year. The ancient Indian religion, Vedism (the precursor to Hinduism) had its parallel to the Chinese Huang Chung with its concepts of 'ahata' & 'anahata'; the former representing the audible sound heard by ears, & the latter representing the inaudible Primal Sound, perhaps interestingly also being the name given to the heart 'chakra' - the most important of the 7 spiritual centres in Vedic belief. The Hindus/Vedists have an audible representation of the Sound too; the Om, as the Mandukya Upanishad describes thus: 'The syllable Om, which is the imperishable Brahman, is the Universe. Whatsoever has existed, whatsoever exists, whatsoever shall exist hereafter, is Om. & whatsoever transcends past, present, & future, that is also Om.'
Science also notes correlations with the laws of music & the laws of the Universe; first there is the 'mystery' of the Pythagorean Comma. This is the phenomenon whereby if one has a starting pitch, & raise it successively by an acoustic perfect 5th thus:
F - C - G - D - A - E - B - F# - C# - G# - D# - A#
when one tries to complete the cycle of 5ths to return to the initial pitch class of E# (F), one finds that one has slightly 'overshot' the mark; the difference being known as the Comma. It was this difference (which has led to the multitudinous tuning systems that Western musical theory has devised over the last 600 years) which was used by ancient philosophers to represent humanity's; fall from perfection - furthermore, the fact that the difference is an excess rather than a deficit, symbolically spiralling upwards, was used to represent renewal - the phoenix rising from the ashes, & the hope of resurrection & immortality in Heaven (Tame 1984: pp 248-250).
There are other scientific correlations to note; in his books 'Mysterium Cosmographicum' (1596) & 'Harmonices Mundi V' (1619), Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) pointed out the harmonic nature of the Solar System - the proportions of the orbital positions of the planets (& the position of the Jovian asteroids) around the Sun correspond exactly with the proportions between pitches in the harmonic series (Godwin 1987). Furthermore, referring back to the Pythagorean Comma for a second, there is a relationship between the length of the Sidereal year (equinox to equinox) of 365.256 days & the length of the Lunar year (12 new moons) of 354.333 days; in fact the former exceeds the latter by a factor of 1.03082, which, given the coincidences, is shatteringly close to the figure of 1.01364, which is the factor of overlap of the Pythagorean Comma. The coincidence extends still further; if we took a period of time which corresponds to the true Comma to the Sidereal year, we find a year lasting 360.27390 days - with 360 days being the length of the year as measured by the Pharisees of Israel.
So, where do these ideas of sound & music being fundamental to the governance of the Universe leave those of us who are responsible for the creation & production of sound & music in the closing years of the twentieth century ? I have been referring at length to David Tame's book 'The Secret Power of Music' for a very good reason. It is a highly comprehensive work, containing a lot of useful information. However, careful reading of it shows up to me what are the dangers of taking any philosophical dogma too literally (indeed, the book could be described as a 'microcosm' of musical philosophy), for interspersed amongst the facts & informations it is possible to detect a not-so-hidden agenda; namely, to denigrate & condemn as evil the majority of music to have been made since the Emancipation Of Dissonance of all flavours - 'art' music, jazz, & pop, by referring to certain experiments performed on plants (Tame 1984: pp 141-145) whilst carefully avoiding quoting precise references for the research, & also many other sniping condemnations of specific composers & performers, such as John Cage, Karlheinz Stockhausen, & Steve Reich, describing them with terms such as 'antimusic' & 'perverted', & at the same time promoting the music of his personal 'favourites', such as Ralph Vaughan - Williams, Gustav Holst, Ludwig van Beethoven, & Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. At the end of the book, he then (actually quite subtly) introduces what is obviously his own religious affiliation, the Summit Lighthouse aka The Church Universal & Triumphant as the practitioners of the New Morally Correct Music.
Subsequent to my original writing of this article as an essay in 1996 I came across a recording of rituals performed by the Summit Lighthouse in their meetings, and turned it into a musical work of my own:
As can be heard, some of their opinions on people, society, and lifestyles are considerably more ugly even than their opinions on music.
It is my own opinion that there is a real & scientific connection between the artistic laws that make beautiful music & the physical laws that make a beautiful Universe; however, just as philosophy is humanity's search for those physical laws at the Ultimate Level, so musical philosophy of this nature is the search for the aesthetic correspondence with them. However, I find that philosophy, like physics, is never complete; & any attempt to impose such completeness is, at best aesthetically bankrupt, & at worse aesthetic Fascism.
BIBLIOGRAPHY & FURTHER READING
The Secret Power of Music, David Tame, Thorsons Publishing (1984)
Nada Brahma, The World is Sound, Joachim-Ernst Berendt, Insel Verlag (1983)
Music, Mysticism, & Magic, Joscelyn Godwin, Routledge & Kegan Paul (1986)
The Penguin Encyclopedia of Ancient Civilisations, ed Arthur Cotterell,
Grove's Dictionary of Music & Musicians
The Rebirth of Hindu Music, Dane Rudhyar (1928)
The Rise of Music in the Ancient World, Curt Sachs (1943)
The Magic of Tone & the Art of Music, Dane Rudhyar, Boulder (1982)
Through Music to the Self, Peter Michel Hamel, Compton Press (1978)
Harmonies of Heaven & Earth, Joscelyn Godwin, Thames & Hudson (1987)